Shared dysregulation of homeostatic brain-body pathways in depression and type 2 diabetes.
Hoogendoorn, Claire J.
Roy, Juan F.
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The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of shared dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axes associated with depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Clinical implications and future research are also discussed. Both depression and T2D are associated with dysregulation of the HPA and BGM axes. These pathways regulate immune function, glucose metabolism, and sleep, which are altered in both illnesses. Dysregulation of homeostatic brain-body pathways may be positively influenced through different therapeutic actions, including psychotherapy, healthy eating, physical activity, sleep promotion, and certain anti-inflammatory or antidepressant medications. While the causal nature of the relationship between depression and T2D remains unclear, these conditions share dysregulation of homeostatic brain-body pathways that are central to mental and physical health. Better understanding of this dysregulation may provide opportunities for interventions that could benefit both conditions. Future research should examine the additive burden of depression and T2D on HPA and BGM dysregulation and better differentiate depression from emotional distress.
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