The relationships between spirituality and religiosity, trait mindfulness, and health outcomes in a Jewish community sample
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Background: Empirical findings suggest that spirituality, religiosity, and trait mindfulness (S/R/TM) are associated with favorable physical and mental health outcomes. Few studies have explored the relationships between S/R/TM variables and their impact on health outcomes in Jewish populations -- traditionally under-studied in health research. Those results available support a generally salutary association between S/R variables and health outcomes. The current study examines S/R/TM within a Jewish community sample and seeks to provide insight into the impact they may have on individuals' physical and mental health.;Methods: The sample (N = 300) consisted primarily of North American Jews, recruited via online social media and through community organizations. Participants completed an online survey battery which included measures of spirituality and religiosity, trait mindfulness, depression, perceived stress, general mental and physical health, and demographic information. Results were analyzed using SPSS with Andrew Hayes's path analysis and PROCESS software.;Results: The sample was comprised of 60% females and 40% males. Mean age was 40 years old (SD = 15.36). In terms of religious affiliation, 51% identified as Orthodox, 21% as Conservative, 7.7% as Reform, and 20.3% as "Other." Mean scores on measures of spirituality, trait mindfulness, and health outcomes were consistent the general population. Participants' religiosity scores were higher than average. Mindfulness scores accounted for a significant portion of the variance in participants' mental health outcome scores (F(1) = 85.5, p < .001, etap2 = .25) with significant direct effects and indirect effects through depression, b = .950, BCa CI [.060, .138], and perceived stress, b = .119, BCa CI [.084, .164]. S/R accounted for a much smaller or non-significant portion of the variance. S/R/TM all accounted for a small or non-significant portion of the variance in participants' physical health outcomes.;Conclusion: The findings suggest significant associations between S/R/TM and health outcomes, with mindfulness impacting most notably. These findings are more robust for mental health outcomes than for physical health outcomes. Religious affiliation and other demographic variables were not impactful predictors of health in this sample. Implications for future research directions as well as development of community programming and health-promoting interventions are discussed.