THE VALIDITY OF THE BENDER-GESTALT TEST AS A PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE
SCHNEIDER, HENRY LOUIS
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The present study investigated the validity of the Bender-Gestalt test as a projective technique. Raters' interpretations of the Bender protocols of patients were compared with Psychotherapists' evaluations of these patients. The latter served as the validating criteria against which Bender interpretations were judged.;It was hypothesized that in the personality areas of Diagnosis and Symptoms, Interpersonal Behavior, and Motivating Needs and Affects personality ratings based on Psychologists' Bender interpretations of patients' protocols would be positively related with Psychotherapists' ratings of the individual patients. No directional hypotheses were suggested for the personality areas of Defenses, Character Traits, and Infancy and Childhood as Perceived by the Patient.;Sixteen patients, eight men and eight women, were administered the Bender-Gestalt test. Psychotherapists evaluated their patients using the Personality Inventory. Raters evaluated the Bender protocols using the same Personality Inventory. As a result of the distribution of protocols, 48 Rater-Therapist combinations were generated.;The hypotheses were tested by creating a 95% confidence interval around the overall mean for Rater-Therapist agreement in each area. Within each area, an Analysis of Variance on the number of items of agreement was also undertaken to examine Rater differences. A 95% confidence interval was also established around each individual Rater's mean within each scale. Each of the 180 items of the Inventory was treated separately to examine the response patterns between Raters and Therapists.;The hypothesis regarding the area of Diagnosis and Symptoms was supported with several qualifications. The hypotheses regarding the areas of Interpersonal Behavior and Motivating Needs and Affects were not upheld. The areas of Defense and Character Traits were not successfully elaborated upon through Bender interpretations. The area of Infancy and Childhood as Perceived by the Patient was, however, a limited success.;Exploration of individual items revealed several trends including the ability of the Bender to rule out schizophrenia and organicity; and its sensitivity to anxiety, depression, sexuality, passivity-aggressivity, egocentrism, and perceptions by the patient of parental figures. Results were disappointing regarding such dynamics as impulsivity, behavior towards authority figures, fear of separation, emotional lability and alcoholism.