THE EFFECT OF CUEING ON VISUAL-MOTOR PERFORMANCE
This study examined conditions under which children could succeed on tasks they previously failed. It focused upon how stimuli could be systematically altered to create conditions for success through a cueing procedure developed for a visual-motor task (Block Design Subtest of WISC). It was assumed that task-analysis is a valid approach for training.;Hypotheses were: (1) Experimental (E) group would differ from Control (C) group, after manipulation (cueing for E group, more time for C group), in that E group would successfully complete more designs before two consecutive failures, than C group. (2) Sex would have no influence on performance.;The procedure involved three phases, pretest, intervention, posttest phases. In pretest phase, 40 children, from upper middle class suburban school, between ages 8 and 10, who were of average intelligence, were divided into an E and a C group, with a matching procedure. In the intervention phase, E group was administered cues at points of failure, whereas C group was permitted to spend more time with failed designs. One week later, in posttest phase, E and C groups were retested.;E group showed greater improvement than C group, when comparing their performance in terms of individual gain between pretest and posttest. The greater increase in E group, between pre- and posttest condition was attributed to cueing intervention.;When success was redefined from an examination of amount of average gain across all subjects to presence or absence of success (direction), a seemingly different picture emerged. No significant difference in performance between E and C groups was found. However, a strong trend for improvement was present in E group. Also, by comparing average gains for E and C groups, it became apparent that those children who improved in E group, gained more than those in C group. Therefore, it is crucial that amount of change also be considered. When taking into account how much children improved, as well as direction, a significant difference in performance between E and C groups was found.;It was found that sex had no influence on rate of improvement.;Psychoeducational implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were presented.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 44-06, Section: B, page: 1948.