TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS (MANIA)
RICHARDSON, MARY ANN
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Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder seen in psychiatric patients that is considered to be a side effect of treatment with major tranquilizers. Schizophrenics for whom these drugs are the primary treatment medium have been most afflicted with this disorder. Investigations into psychopathological variables that may define a population more vulnerable to the development of tardive dyskinesia have found both positive and negative associations with symptoms of depression. The present study was conducted to investigate in a more rigorous manner than previously attempted the possible relationship between depressive symptoms and tardive dyskinesia in patients with a verified diagnosis of schizophrenia.;The study group consisted of 32 young male inpatients who were evaluated for parkinsonism-like symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, depression, affective flattening, mental status and psychopathology by the use of several scales and were placed in one of two groups based on the presence or absence of tardive dyskinesia. Analyses were also done comparing the two groups on data collected from the patient's diagnostic interview and from interviews with family members on the family history of psychiatric disorders.;The results of multivariate analyses performed on the data demonstrate that the depression measures used had no predictive strength for tardive dyskinesia. What did predict to the presence of the disorder were the variables of: the number of years since first admission and the symptoms of tension, excitement, mannerisms and posturing and hostility. These symptoms are indicative of the hallmark symptoms of mania and in fact may represent an affective component in schizophrenia. The analyses of the diagnostic interview and family history data demonstrate a significant positive association of tardive dyskinesia and symptoms seen in mania and a trend for an association with a family history of major affective disorder. The study findings, then, do suggest an association of tardive dyskinesia with affective variables, variables, however, that are closer to mania than depression.;The present study has defined a population at particular risk for the development of tardive dyskinesia. The findings of this investigation make a significant contribution to the study of tardive dyskinesia and could well be an important step toward elucidating the pathophysiology of the disorder.