ALFRED ADLER'S INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THEORY OF DEPRESSION: A SYNTHESIS IN RETROSPECT
TAUB, RENA R.
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Three contemporary theorists, Sylvano Arieti (Cognitive-Volitional-Interpersonal), Aaron T. Beck (Cognitive), and Walter Bonime (Culturalist-Interpersonal) emphasize the role of cognitive, volitional, interpersonal and cultural factors in man's personality, thoughts, feelings and actions, both normal and pathological. The roots of these three schools are in the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and his concept of life style, whose main elements are goal-directedness, biased apperception, striving for adaptation and social context. The theories of depression of these three schools can be traced back to basic Adlerian principles and to the Adlerian theory of depression. Adler's comprehensive system may be viewed as a synthesis in retrospect of current trends.;This study is an intellectual history which identifies and analyzes the following issues and concepts and their historical and theoretical relationships: (1) Key concepts in Adler's theory, especially life style and its application to the understanding and treatment of depression, (2) Key concepts in the theories of Arieti, Beck and Bonime and their respective theories of depression and its treatment. (3) Influence on these contemporary theorists of Adler's ideas through Adler's writings, and indirectly through the work of Horney, Sullivan and others. (4) The incorporation, adaptation, modification and expansion of Adler's ideas by these contemporary authors, especially regarding certain aspects life style and depression.;This study has found a historical relationship and theoretical convergences between Adler's work and that of Arieti, Beck and Bonime, particularly in the area of depression and its treatment through psychotherapy.