Analytic candidates' experiences: Internalization and supervisory style
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This study examined the relationship between variations in supervisory style; quality of internalization of the supervisory experience; and perceived effectiveness of supervision from the perspective of analytic candidates (satisfaction). The experience of problems in the supervisory relationship was also considered in connection with these variables.;258 candidates in training at thirteen psychoanalytic institutes throughout the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area completed a questionnaire which included measures of supervisory style, internalization, and satisfaction with supervision. Internalization was assessed by the Supervisory Internalization Inventory (SII) which estimates the qualitative way in which supervisees define, represent and evoke images of their supervisor. This inventory is adapted from The Therapist Representation Inventory developed by Geller, Cooley and Hartley (1981-2). Supervisory style was assessed by the Supervisory Styles Inventory (SSI; Friedlander and Ward, 1984) which consists of three empirically derived scales: "Attractive;" "Interpersonally Sensitive" and "Task-Oriented." Style was also assessed by a Supervisory Style Typology (SST) designed for this investigation; and questions pertaining to countertransference and the supervisory relationship. Effectiveness of supervision was measured by the Supervision Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ), a global estimate of candidates' satisfaction with the supervisory experience. Subjects also responded to questions regarding the occurrence of problems in the supervisory relationship.;The SII was factor analyzed, yielding seven meaningful, interpretable and internally consistent factors. Internalization factors were found to be significantly related to supervisory style along a variety of dimensions; and both internalization and style variables were significantly related to candidates' self perceived benefit from the supervisory experience (satisfaction).;Exploring countertransference, addressing the supervisory relationship, and experiencing the relationship as mutually honest and open were all found to be significantly related to satisfaction, supervisory style and internalization variables. Independent sample t-tests demonstrated significant differences on a variety of measures (style, internalization, satisfaction, countertransference and the supervisory relationship) between candidates reporting problems versus those reporting no problems in the supervision. Significant differences were also found between candidates reporting positive versus negative impact of discussing problems with their supervisors. Implications for a theory and practice of supervision are discussed.