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The history and development of the study of the Oral Law following the completion of the Babylonian Talmud remain shrouded in mystery. Although significant Geonim from Babylonia and Palestine during the eighth and ninth centuries have been identified, the extent to which their writings reached Europe, and the channels through which they passed, remain somewhat unclear. A fragile consensus suggests that, at least initially, rabbinic teachings and rulings from Eretz Israel traveled most directly to centers in Italy and later to Germany (Ashkenaz), while those of Babylonia emerged predominantly in the western Sephardic milieu of Spain and North Africa. (from Introduction)
Ephraim Kanarfogel, “Talmudic Studies,” in Robert Chazan, ed., The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 6 – The Middle Ages: The Christian World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 582-619, 897
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