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Title: A scoping review of machine learning in psychotherapy research
Authors: Aafjes-Van Doorn, Katie
Kamsteeg, Céline
Bate, Jordan
Aafjes, Marc
Keywords: machine learning
scoping review
big data
artificial intelligence
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Citation: Aafjes-Van Doorn, K., Kamsteeg, C., Bate, J., & Aafjes, M. (2021). A scoping review of machine learning in psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy Research, 31(1), 92–116.
Series/Report no.: Psychotherapy Research;31(1)
Abstract: Machine learning (ML) offers robust statistical and probabilistic techniques that can help to make sense of large amounts of data. This scoping review paper aims to broadly explore the nature of research activity using ML in the context of psychological talk therapies, highlighting the scope of current methods and considerations for clinical practice and directions for future research. Using a systematic search methodology, fifty-one studies were identified. A narrative synthesis indicates two types of studies, those who developed and tested an ML model (k=44), and those who reported on the feasibility of a particular treatment tool that uses an ML algorithm (k=7). Most model development studies used supervised learning techniques to classify or predict labeled treatment process or outcome data, whereas others used unsupervised techniques to identify clusters in the unlabeled patient or treatment data. Overall, the current applications of ML in psychotherapy research demonstrated a range of possible benefits for indications of treatment process, adherence, therapist skills and treatment response prediction, as well as ways to accelerate research through automated behavioral or linguistic process coding. Given the novelty and potential of this research field, these proof-of-concept studies are encouraging, however, do not necessarily translate to improved clinical practice (yet).
Description: Scholarly article
ISSN: 1050-3307 (print) 1468-4381 (online)
Appears in Collections:Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology: Faculty Publications

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