Health intelligence: Theory, model, validity of questionaire and path to stress, spirituality, personality, psychological well being and health status
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A theoretical model is described for a biopsychosocial-spiritual-environmental model to health and the construct of health intelligence is suggested as a crucial factor in health, wellness, preventative medicine and health promotion. Health Intelligence is introduced as a new concept to examine one's health and to promote health and wellness using an integrative model to health. Humanistic and holistic theories ground this concept. To determine one's health intelligence, all variables which effect health are considered including biology, psychology, sociology, spirituality, and environmental factors. The model of Health Intelligence is reviewed and literature review of models of health is discussed. The concept of health intelligence is discussed theoretically with specific reference to literature from sociology, wellness and health promotion, cognitive theory, mind-body theory, self actualization, stress management and self care. Significant health trends such as alternative and complementary medicine usage is discussed as well as the relationship between spirituality, religion and health. Further, health intelligence is defined and operationalized in terms of psychological, physical, social, spiritual, and environmental knowledge, beliefs, conscious habits and health behaviors. Measurement of this construct is referred to as the Health Intelligence Questionnaire. A review of the development of the measure of health intelligence is included, results from principal component analyses are presented, validity and reliability is determined. One hundred subjects filled out self-report questionnaires to further examine the theoretical model, study the relationship of health intelligence and stress, spirituality, religion, personality, psychological well being and health status by correlation analyses to determine future design studies for the HIQ. The revised Health Intelligence Questionnaire has 13 scales that derive HIQ with 82 items. The questionnaire has good reliability and validity. Several scales of HIQ were predictive of health status. Future studies are discussed based on exploratory evaluation.