English-language spread: Predicting three criteria
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This study examines the spread of English in 121 non-English mother-tongue countries. Its purpose is to utilize a vast array of interdisciplinary variables in attempting to explain the global spread of English, and to examine the cumulative nature of these variables in explaining this spread. Since this study is a methodology and data introducing study rather than one which attempts to test substantive hypotheses, the formulation of hypotheses was not employed.;The total number of independent and dependent variables used in this study is 245. The independent variable data set consists of 240 variables while the dependent variable set consists of five variables. The latter variables consist of the proportion of foreign student in English mother-tongue countries from non-English mother-tongue countries, the proportion of English newspaper circulation in non-English mother-tongue countries, and three models which measure the degree of English-language institutionalization in non-English mother-tongue countries. Both dependent and independent variables are derived from secondary sources taken from governmental, United Nation's and other empirical sources. Independent variables are both categorical and continuous. The five dependent variables are all continuous.;Four stepwise multiple regressions (each controlling for specific variables) were conducted on each dependent variable. Results confirm past findings regarding the role of colonialism in the spread of English as well as the role of linguistic heterogeneity, and economic development. Some of the characteristics of nations not addressed in past studies of English-language spread, but found to be significant predictors of this phenomenon are: the degree of English-language institutionalization found in a nation, the lack of a developmental orientation, African rather than South American, and the percent of students in English mother-tongue nations from non-English mother-tongue countries.;Recommendations for future research include worldwide studies of English-language spread using predictors found to be significant within. In addition, future examination regarding the roles of science and technology as promotors of English-language spread is also recommended.